Please click here for further information on the measurement of HLB.
Please click here for non ionic surfactant structures examples.
Please click here for anionic surfactant structures examples.
Please click here for cationic and amphoteric surfactant structures examples.
- Non-ionic - that is a surfactant that has no net charge.
- An ionic surfactant carries a net charge.
- Surfactants with a negative charge are called Anionic.
- Surfactants with a positive charge are called Cationic.
- Zwitterionic surfactants contain two oppositely charged groups.
MSG has found surfactant analysis can range from the simple test involving one technique to a very complex protocol involving many analytical techniques.
A simple one technique approach would use 1H NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) to determine the w/w% EO content of a poloxamer.
The next stage may involve NMR and Mass Spectrometry which can provide information on the initiator, alkyl chain lengths with distribution, distinguish between linear and branched alkyl chains, molecular weight distribution, EOPO ratio, end groups etc. Other alternative technique such as LC-MS, HPLC, and GC-MS may be employed depending on the nature of the surfactant or concentration.
The final approach for complex surfactant formulations which often contains dozens of components at vastly varying concentration levels involves a multidisciplinary approach. This deconstruction of a formulation can be as difficult as the design of the product. A co-ordinated approach is required which brings together skills in extraction, separation science, spectroscopy and physical testing. MSG have developed a significant skill base in this area covering polymer formulations, surfactants, multi-layer systems, drug delivery systems, additives and food ingredients, among others.
Non Ionic examples
- EOPO copolymers (Poloxamers)
- Alcohol or Phenolic initiated alkoxylates (Butanol ethoxylates ,Nonyl phenol Ethoxylates)
- PEG esters( Adipic ethoxylate esters)
- Aliphatic and aromatic Sulphonates and Sulphates ( Alkyl benzene sulphonate)
- Phosphate Esters for example Nonylphenol Ethoxylate Phosphate ester
- Ester quats (DiTallow Triethanolamine ester quat)
- Alkyl amine quaternaries (Dimethyl Distearyl Ammonium quat)
- Betaine Cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB))
Advice is available, so make the call +44 (0) 1642 435788 or email MSGenquiry@intertek.com